Effect of Dietary Prebiotic Safmannan and Bio-antibiotic Fluconazole on some Growth and Haemato-immunological Parameters of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus

Authors

  • Safa M. Imran Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah
  • Atheer H. Ali Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah
  • Salah M. Najim Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37077/25200860.2019.208

Keywords:

Fish, Dietary supplement, Safmannan, Fluconazole, Health, Haematology

Abstract

This study was conducted in the laboratories of the College of Agriculture, University of Basrah for 75 days, in order to study the effect of using prebiotic (Safmannan) and bio-antibiotic (Fluconazole) on some growth and haemato-immunological parameters of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. The fishes were divided into four categories of treatments; the first treatment was the control (basal diet), the second and third treatments (T2 and T3) contained 500 and 1000 mg.kg-1 diet of Safmannan, respectively while the fourth treatment consisted of adding 150 mg.100 g-1 diet of bio-antibiotic Fluconazole. The second and third treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than control and antibiotic treatments in the growth parameters such as the average of daily weight gain, the average of specific growth and the feed conversion of the second and third treatments. Blood proteins (albumin, globulin and total protein) showed significantly higher (p <0.05) values in the second and third treatments than control and antibiotic treatments. No significant differences were noted in both packed cells volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) among different treatments. The value of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) showed no significant differences among all treatments, while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was significantly higher and aspartate transaminase (AST) was significantly lower in the fourth treatment. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) was significantly higher in all treatments compared with the control, while no significant differences in spleen somatic index (SSI) were noted among all treatments. Differential white blood count exhibited no significant differences among the treatments for eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes, while neutrophil count was significantly decreased in all treatments in comparison with the control.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abu-Elala, N.; Marzouk, M. & Moustafa, M. (2013). Use of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae biotic forms as immune-modulator and growth promoter for Oreochromis niloticus challenged with some fish pathogens. Int. J. Vet. Sci. Med., 1: 21-29.

Adel, M.; Safari, R.; Yeganeh, S.; Binaii, M.; Ghiasi, M. & Ahmadvand, S. (2017). Effect of dietary GroBiotic®-A supplementation as a prebiotic on the intestinal microflora, growth performance, haemato-serological parameters, survival rate and body composition in juvenile beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754). Aquac. Nutr., 23(3): 492-499. DOI: 10.1111/anu.12417.

Ahmad, H.M.; Eid, A.M.S.; Al-Danasoury, A.M.E.; Khouraiba, E.R.M.A. & El-Aidy, E.S.B. (2008). Studies on using oxytetracycline as a growth promoter in fingerlings Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) diets. Suez Canal Vet. Med. J., 13(2): 497- 511.

Ahmed, V.M. (2014). Comparative effects of probiotic (Saccharomyces cereviciae), prebiotic (Fructooligosaccharide FOS) and their combination on growth performance and some blood indices in young common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). M. Sc. Thesis. Fac. Agric. Sci., Univ. Sulaimani: 97pp.

Akrami, R.; Razeghi-Mansour, M.; Chitsaz, H.; Ziace, R. & Ahmadi, Z. (2012). Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on growth performance, survival, body composition and some hematological parameters of carp juvenile (Cyprinus carpio). J. Anim. Sci. Adv., 2(11): 879-885.

Akrami, R.; Razeghi Mansour, M.; Ghobadi, Sh.; Ahmadifar, E.; Shaker Khoshroudi, M. & Moghimi Haji, M.S. (2013). Effect of prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide on hematological and blood serum biochemical parameters of cultured juvenile great sturgeon (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754). J. Appl. Ichthyol., 29(6): 1214-1218.

Al-Ashaab, M.H. (2011). Addition of different type and levels of omega-3 and omega-6 enriched diets on the growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings. Ph. D. Thesis, Coll. Agric., Univ. Baghdad: 177pp. (In Arabic).

Allameh, S.K.; Yusoff, F.M.; Ringø, E.; Daud, H.M.; Saad, C.R. & Ideris, A. (2016) .Effects of dietary mono?and multiprobiotic strains on growth performance, gut bacteria and body composition of Javanese carp (Puntius gonionotus Bleeker, 1850). Aquac. Nutr., 22(2): 367-373. 15https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.12265.

Amani Denji, K.; Razeghi Mansour, M.; Akrami, R.; Ghobadi, Sh.; Jafarpour, S.A. & Mirbeygi, S.K. (2015). Effect of dietary prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on growth performance, intestinal microflora, body composition, haematological and blood serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 10(4): 255-265.

Anguiano, M.; Pohlenz, C.A.B.; Buentello, A. & Gatlin, D.M. (2013). The effects of prebiotics on the digestive enzymes and gut histomorphology of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and hybrid striped bass (Moronechrysops × M. saxatilis). Br. J. Nutr., 109(4): 623-629.

Ashourpour, A.; Zamini, A.A.; Yazdani, M.A. & Masouleh, A.S. (2012). The efficacy of dietary prebiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall on growth indices, survival rate and carcass proximate composition in fingerlings Acipenser nudiventris. Global Aquaculture securing our future. 1-5 September, 2012. Prague, Czech Rep.: 1p.

Azevedo, R.V.; Fosse Filho, J.C.; Cardoso, L.D.; Mattos, D.C.M.; Júnior, M.V.V. & de Andrade, D.R. (2015). Economic evaluation of prebiotics, probiotics and symbiotics in juvenile Nile tilapia. Rev. Ciênc. Agron., 46(1): 72-79. DOI.org/10.1590/S1806.66902015000100009.

Baldry, I. (2000). Effect of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) on aquatic restorations. Restor. Reclam. Rev., 6(6): 1-8.

Bandyopadhyay, P.; Mishra, S.; Sarkar, B.; Swain, S.K.; Pal, A.; Tripathy, P.P. & Ojha, S.K. (2015). Dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae boosts growth and immunity of IMC Labeo rohita (Ham.) juveniles. Indian J. Microbial., 55(1): 81-87.

Boyd, C.E. & Tucker, C.S. (1998). Pond Aquaculture Water Quality management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston: 700pp.

Brogden, G.; Krimmling, T.; Adamek, M.; Naim, H.Y.; Steinhagen, D. & von Köckritz-Blickwede, M. (2014). The effect of ?-glucan on formation and functionality of neutrophil extracellular traps in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Dev. Comp. Immunol., 44(2): 280-285.

Campbell, T.W. )1995(. Avian Hematology and Cytology, 2nd ed., Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa: 104pp.

Carrias, A.; Ran, C.; Terhune J.S. & Liles, M.R. (2012). Bacteria and bacteriophages as biological agents for disease control in aquaculture: 353-393. In: Austin, B. (Ed.). Infectious Disease in Aquaculture: Prevention and Control. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition: 560pp.

Chen, Y.; Zhu, X.; Yang, Y.; Han, D.; Jin, J. & Xie, S. (2014). Effect of dietary chitosan on growth performance, haematology, immune response, intestine morphology, intestine microbiota and disease resistance in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Aquac. Nut., 20(5): 532-546.

Dobšíková, R.; Blahová, J.; Mikulíková, I.; Modrá, H.; Prášková, E.; Svobodová, Z.; Škori?, M.; Jarkovský, J. & Siwicki, A.-K. (2013). The effect of oyster mushroom ?-1.3/1.6-D-glucan and oxytetracycline antibiotic on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Fish Shellfish Immunol., 35(6): 1813-1823.

Duncan, D.B. )1955(. Multiple range and multiple F-test. Biometrics, 11(1): 4-42.

Ebrahimi, G.; Ouraji, H.; Khalesi, M.K.; Sudagar, M.; Barari, A.; Zarei Dangesarak, M. & Jani Khalili, K.H. (2011).Effects of a prebiotic, Immunogen®, on feed utilization, body composition, immunity and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) fingerlings. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (Berl.), 96(4): 591-599. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01182.x.

Eleraky, W.; Yahya, M.; Reda, R.M. & Eletreby, S. (2014). Evaluation of prebiotic and probiotic dietary supplementation on growth performance and some blood parameters of Cyprinus carpio frys. Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. Fish., 18(2): 29-38. DOI: 10.21608/ejabf.2014.2203.

El?Haroun, E.R.; Goda, A.M.A.-S. & Kabir Chowdhury, M.K. (2006). Effect of dietary probiotic Biogen® supplementation as a growth promoter on growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Aquac. Res., 37(14): 1473-1480.

El-Houseiny, W.; Khalil, A.A. & Mowafy, R.E. (2015). Immunological and pathological studies on (Oreochromis niloticus) fed on cinnamon and ox tetracycline in diet and challenged with Clostridium perfringens. Abbassa Int. J. Aqua., 8(1): 1-19.

Gelibolu, S.; Yanar, Y.; Ayce Genc, M. & Genc, E. (2018). Effects of Mannan-oligosaccharide (Mos) supplementation on growth and some blood parameters of gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata). Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 18(6): 817-823.

Genc, M.A.; Yilmaz, E.; Genc, E. & Aktas, M. (2007). Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on growth, body composition, and intestine and liver histology of the hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus). Isr. J. Aquac., 59: 10-16.

Gharaei, A.; Rayeni; M.F.; Ghaffari, M.; Akrami, R. & Ahmadifar, E. (2016). Influence of dietary prebiotic mixture (? - mune) on growth performance, haematology and innate immunity of beluga sturgeon (Husohuso) juvenile. Int. J. Aquat. Biol., 4(4): 277-284.

Hepher, B. (1988). Nutrition of Pond Fish. Cambridge Univ. Press: 385pp. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511735455.

Herwig, N. (1979). Handbook of Drugs and Chemicals used in the Treatment of Fish Disease. Charles C. Thomas Publ., Springfield, Illinois: xv + 272pp.

Hoole, D.; Bucke, D.; Burgess, P. & Wellby, I. (Eds.) (2001). Diseases of Carp and Other Cyprinid Fishes. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa: 280pp.

Hutkins, R.W.; Krumbeck, J.A.; Bindels, L.B.; Cani, P.D.; Fahey, Jr.G.; Goh, Y.J.; Hamaker, B.; Martens, E.C.; Mills, D.A.; Rastal, R.A.; Vaughan, E. & Sanders, M.E. (2016). Prebiotics: Why definitions matter. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol., 37: 1-7.

Kühlwein, H.; Merrifield, D.L.; Rawling, M.D.; Foey, A.D. & Davies, S.J. (2014). Effects of dietary ??(1,3)(1,6)?D?glucan supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology and haemato?immunological profile of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 98(2): 279-289.

Lovell, T. (1989). Nutrition and Feeding of Fish. Van Nostra and Reinhold. New York: 260pp.

Mangat, H.K. & Hundal, S.S. (2014). Salinity tolerance of laboratory reared fingerlings of common carp, Cyprinuscarpio (Linn.) during different seasons. Int. J. Adv.Res.,2(11): 491-496.

Mazurkiewicz, J.; Przyby?, A. & Golski, J. (2008). Usability of Fermacto prebiotic in feeds for common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fry. Nauka Przyr. Technol., 2(3): 15: 9pp.

Mumford, S.; Heidel, J.; Smith, C.; Morrison, J.; MacConnell, B. & Blazer, V. (2007). Fish Histology and Histopathology. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS). National Conservation Training Center (NCTC): 356pp. https://training.fws.gov/resources/course-resources /fish-histology/Fish-Histology_Manual_v4.pdf.

Ovie, K.-S.; Bemigho, I.R. & Gbemi, O.M. (2010). Variations in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in African catfish: Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) at different sublethal concentrations of potassium permanganate. Sci. Res. Essays, 5(12): 1501-1505.

Pali?, D.; Beck, L.S.; Pali?, J. & Andreasen, C.B. (2011). Use of rapid cytochemical staining to characterize fish blood granulocytes in species of special concern and determine potential for function testing. Fish Shellfish Immunol., 30(2): 646-652.

Peres, H.; Santos, S. & Oliva-Teles, A. (2013). Selected plasma biochemistry parameters in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles. J. Appl. Ichthyol., 29(3): 630-636.

Plosker, G.L. & Figgitt, D. (2003). Rituximab: A review of its use in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Drugs, 63(8): 803-843.

Reda, R.M.; Ibrahim, R.E.; Ahmed, E.G. & El-Bouhy, Z.M. (2013). Effect of oxytetracycline and florfenicol as growth promoters on the health status of cultured Oreochromis niloticus. Egypt. J. Aquat. Res., 39: 241-248.

Richards, R.H. & Pickering, A.D. (1979). Changes in serum parameters of Saprolegnia-infected brown trout, Salmo trutta L. J. Fish Dis., 2(3): 197-206.

Rodgers, C.J. & Furones, M.D. (2009). Antimicrobial agents in aquaculture: Practice, needs and issues: 41-59. In: Rogers, C. & Basurco, B. (Eds.). The Use of Veterinary Drugs and Vaccines in Mediterranean Aquaculture. Zaragoza. CIHEAM: 223pp. http://om.cih eam.org/article.ph p?ID PDF=801061.

Saha, H.; Pal, A.K.; Sahu, N.P.; Saha, R.K. & Goswami, P. (2017). Effects of fluconazole based medicated feed on haemato-immunological responses and resistance of Labeo rohita against Saprolegnia parasitica. Fish Shellfish Immunol., 71:346-352.

SAS (2012). Statistical Analysis System, User's Guide. Statistical. Version 9.1ed.SAS. Inst. Inc. Cary. N.C.: 535pp.

Schreck, C.B. & Moyle, P.B. (1990). Methods for Fish Biology. Am. Fish. Soc., Bethesda, Maryland: xix + 684pp.

Shalaby, A.M.E. (2005). The opposing effect of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) on ochratoxin toxicity in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Proc. 6th Int. Symp. Tilapia Aquac., Philippines: 209-221.

Staykov, Y.; Denev, S. & Spring, P. (2005). Influence of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos) on growth rate and immune function of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). In: Howell, B. & Flos, R. (Eds.). Lessons from the past to optimise the future. Europ. Aquac. Soc., Spec. Publ. No. 35: 431-432.

Staykov, Y.; Spring, P.; Denev, E.S. & Sweetman, E.J. (2007). Effect of a mannan oligosaccharide on the growth performance and immune status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquac. Int., 15(2): 153-161. DOI: 10.1007/s10499-007-9096-z.

Suárez, M.D.; Trenzado, C.E.; García-Gallego, M.; Furné, M.; García-Mesa, S.; Domezain, A.; Alba, I. & Sanz, A. (2015). Interaction of dietary energy levels and culture density on growth performance and metabolic and oxidative status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquac. Eng., 67: 59-66.

Ta'ati, R.; Soltani, M.; Bahmani, M. &Zamini;, A.A. (2011). Growth performance, carcass composition and immunophysiological indices in juvenile great sturgeon (Husohuso) fed on commercial prebiotic, immunostar. Iran. J. Fish. Sci., 10(2): 324-335.

Tierney, K.B. & Farrell, A.P. (2004). The relationships between fish health, metabolic rate, swimming performance and recovery in return-run sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum). J. Fish Dis., 27(11): 663-671. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2004. 00590.x.

Tuan, K.N. (2013). Efficiency analysis and experimental study of cooperative behavior of shrimp farmers facing wastewater pollution in the Mekong river delta. Ph. D. Diss., Univ. Sydney Business School, School of Economics: 128pp.

Wang, L.; Lyons, J.; Kanehl, P. & Gatti, R. (1997). Influences of watershed land use on habitat quality and biotic integrity in Wisconsin streams. Fisheries, 22(6): 6-12.

Welker, T.L.; Lim, C.; Yildirim-Aksoy, M.; Shelby, R. & Klesius, P.H. (2007). Immune response and resistance to stress and Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, fed diets containing commercial whole-cell yeast or yeast subcomponents. J. World Aquac. Soc., 38(1): 24-35.

Wiegertjes, G.F.; Stet, R.J.M.; Parmentier, H.K. & van Muiswinkel, W.B. (1996). Immunogenetics of disease resistance in fish: A comparable approach. Dev. Comp. Immunol., 20(6): 365-381.

Wisplinghoff, H.; Ebbers, J.; Geurtz, L.; Stefanik, D.; Major, Y.; Edmond, M.B.; Wenzel, R.P. & Seifert, H. (2014). Nosocomial blood- stream infections due to Candida spp. in the USA: Species distribution, clinical features and antifungal susceptibilities. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, 43(1): 78-81.

Wolf, K. & Darlington, R.W. (1971). Channel catfish virus: A new herpes virus of ictalurid fish. J. Virol., 8(4): 525- 533. ysong, D.L. (2003). Rationale for probiotic supplementation.http://www.wysong.net/PDFs /probiotic.pdf.

Yang, J.-L. & Chen, H.-C. (2003). Serum metabolic enzyme activities and hepatocyte ultrastructure of common carp after gallium exposure. Zool. Stud., 42(3): 455-461.

Zhou, Q.-C.; Buentello, J.A. & Gatlin III, D.M. (2010). Effects of dietary prebiotics on growth performance, immune response and intestinal morphology of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquaculture, 309(1-4): 253-257.

Published

2019-12-31

How to Cite

Imran, S. M., Ali, A. H., & Najim, S. M. (2019). Effect of Dietary Prebiotic Safmannan and Bio-antibiotic Fluconazole on some Growth and Haemato-immunological Parameters of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus. Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 32(2), 176-192. https://doi.org/10.37077/25200860.2019.208

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)