The Role of Sprayer`s Characteristics and Foliar Spraying for Improving the Maize Growth and Yield

Authors

  • Majid H. Alheidary Agricultural Machines & Equipment Department, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq
  • Madyan S. Al-shaheen Agricultural Machines & Equipment Department, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq
  • Sundus A. Al abdullah Field Crop Department, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37077/25200860.2020.33.2.16

Keywords:

Knapsack sprayer, nozzles, Micronutrients, Maize

Abstract

: The field experiment was performed during the autumn growing season 2019 in Al Khyoot village of the Qurna town which is located at 75 km northern Basrah city centre. For improving the maize growth and yield, the effect of foliar spraying with iron and zinc and the most important technological characteristics of the knapsack sprayer such as nozzle types was studied. Three nozzle types were investigated as standard Flat fan nozzle, Hollow cone nozzle, and Tip nozzle (as reference nozzle in this study). Three foliar concentrations (0, Zn30 + Fe100 and Fe100+ Zn30) as well as a 16- litre capacity of the knapsack sprayer were used for fertilizer spraying experiments. All field experiments were carried out using the complete randomized block design (RCBD) with three replications. The results of the statistical analysis showed that there was a significant effect of the nozzle type and foliar spraying on the plant growth and yield characteristics as plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, number of grains, and yields (152.39 cm, 1.88 cm, 13.98, 4559 cm2, 376.51 and 5.51 Mg ha-1 respectively). Also, these characteristics showed an increase percentage as following (2.79%, 2.25%, 0.60%, 3.11%, 3.70%, and 1.73% respectively) when the hollow cone nozzle was used compared to the reference nozzle. In addition, an interaction between the studied factors also appeared a significant difference in the grain number and yield characteristics.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Al-Dogachi, K. A. J., Al-Asady, K. K., & Askar, M. A., (2015). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and spraying with iron growth and yield for corn Zea mays L. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences 28. 56-66. https://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=issueTOC&isId=7981&uiLanguage=ar

Alheidary, M. H. R. (2018). Effect of the operating pressure and nozzle height on droplet properties using knapsack sprayer. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 49, 360–366. https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v49i3.105.

Alheidary, M. H. R. (2019). Influence of nozzle type, working pressure, and their interaction on droplets quality using Knapsack sprayer. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 50, 857–866. https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v50i3.702.

Alheidary, M. H. R., Al-shaheen, M. Sh. R., & Abdulah, S., A. M. (2019). Sprayer setup and foliar application effect on maize growth characteristics using different urea concentrations. Farm Machinary and Processes Management in Sustanable Agriculture. vol? 19-23. DOI:10.24326/fmpmsa.2019.1.

Anees, M. A., Ali, A., Shakoor, U., Ahmed, F., Hasnain, Z., & Hussain, A. (2016). Foliar applied potassium and zinc enhances growth and yield performance of maize under rainfed conditions. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 18, 1025–1032. https://doi.org/10.17957/IJAB/15.0204

Arak, R. (2017). Response of some vegetative growth ponitars maize zea mays l. To spray potasium and zinc. Journal Kerbala of Agricultural Sciences, 4., 74–87. https://jkas.uokerbala.edu.iq/article_160313.html

CSO, (2019). Central statistical organization, Ministry of planning, Iraq. http://cosit.gov.iq/

Czaczyk, Z. (2012). Spray classification for selected flat fan nozzles. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 52, 180–183. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045-012-0027-2Elsahookie, M. M., & Cheyed, S. H. (2013). Tables to estimate maize leaf area by measuring one leaf length. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences 44, 164–167. https://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=issueTOC&isId=4350&uiLanguage=ar

Eskandari, H. (2011). The importance of iron (Fe) in plant products and mechanism of its uptake by plants. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological. Sciences, 1, 448–452. https://www.textroad.com/JAEBS-October,%202011.html

FAO. (2015). FAOSTAT. Online statistical database: Production (available at http://faostat3.fao.org/download/Q/QC/E).

Farias, M. A. G. L., Raetano, C. G., Chechetto, R. G., Ferreira-Filho, P. J., Guerreiro, J. C., Bonini, C. S. B., Firmino, A. C., Lima, R. C., & Prado, E. P. (2020). Spray nozzles and droplet size effects on soybean canopy deposits and stink bugs control in west region of São Paulo state- Brazil. Phytoparasitica, 48, 203–213. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12600-020-00786-8

Farshid, A. (2012). Manganese, iron and copper contents in leaves of maize plants (Zea mays L.) grown with different boron and zinc micronutrients. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(4). https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.165

Fernandez, V., Sotiropoulos, T., Brown, P. (2013). Foliar fertilization scientific principles and field practices. International fertizer Industry association (IFA), Paris, France. PP.78. https://www.fertilizer.org/images/Library_Downloads/2013_foliar_fertilization_HR.pdf

Filipović, A., Stanić, G., Kajić, N., Mandić, A., & Vasilj, V. (2019). Production of forage maize yield under the zinc foliar fertilization and irrigation system. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 84, 159–164. https://hrcak.srce.hr/acs

Forney, S. H., Luck, J. D., Kocher, M. F., & Pitla, S. K. (2017). Laboratory and full boom-based investigation of nozzle setup error effects on flow, pressure, and spray pattern distribution. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 33, 641–653. https://doi.org/10.13031/aea.12043

Grisso, R., Hipkins, P., Askew, S. D., Hipkins, L., & Mccall, D. (2013). Nozzles : Selection and Sizing. Verginia Corporative Extension, 12. https://doi.org/doi:http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/442/442-032/442-032_pdf.pdf

Guler, H., Zhu, H., Ozkan, H. E., & Ling, P. (2012). Characterization of hydraulic nozzles for droplet size and spray coverage. Atomization and Sprays, 22, 627–645. https://doi.org/10.1615/AtomizSpr.2012006181

Iqbal, M. A., Abdul, H., Muzammil, H. S., Imtiaz, H., Tanveer, A, Saira, I., & Anser, A. (2019). A meta- analysis of the impact of foliar feeding of micronutrients on productivity and revenue generation of forage crops. Planta Daninha, 37. e019189237. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-83582019370100046

Kumar, N., & SR, S. (2018). Agronomic Biofortification of Maize with Zinc and Iron Micronutrients. Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy, 1. https://doi.org/10.31031/mcda.2018.01.000522

Liu, H., Gan, W., Rengel, Z., & Zhao, P. (2016). Effects of zinc fertilizer rate and application method on photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of summer maize. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 16, 550–562. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-95162016005000045

Mandic, V., Bijelic, Z., Krnjaja, V., Tomic, Z., Stanojkovic-Sebic, A., Stanojkovic, A., & Caro-Petrovic, V. (2016). The effect of crop density on maize grain yield. Biotechnology in Animal HusbandryBiotehnologija u Stocarstvu, 32, 83–90. https://doi.org/10.2298/bah1601083m

Marschner, H. (2012). Marschner’s Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 3rd edition. School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Australia. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2009-0-63043-9

Minov, S. V., Cointault, F., Vangeyte, J., Pieters, J. G., & Nuyttens, D. (2016). Spray droplet characterization from a signle nozzle by high image analysis using an in-focus droplet criterion. Sensors 16, 218. doi: 10.3390/s16020218

Palai, J. B., Jena, J., & Lenka, S. K. (2020). Growth, yield and nutrient uptake of maize as affected by zinc application – A Review. Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, 8, 332–339. https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8054

Rafsanjani, K., Madani, A., & Vazin, F. (2019). Effect of iron on yield of corn (Zea mays L.) in drought stress. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova, 52, 34–43. https://doi.org/10.2478/cerce-2019-0004

Rajawat, M. S. (2019). Plant Nutrients and It’s Impact. ACTA SCIENTIFIC AGRICULTURE 3(6), 31–33. DOI: 10.31080/ASAG.2019.03.0470

Rodrigues, A. de O. (2018). The Effect of Physical application parameters on herbicide efficacy and droplet size. Faculty of the Graduate College, University of Nebraska. Nebraska, U.S.A. PP.93. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/188132601.pdf

Saleem, A., Iqbal, A., & Fahad, S. (2016). Foliar phosphorus and Zinc application improve growth and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) under moisture stress conditions in semi-Arid climates. Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology, 8. DOI:10.4172/1948-5948.1000321

Shivay, Y. S., Prasad, R., & Singh, U. (2016). Micronutrient fertilizers for zinc and iron enrichment in major food crops: A practicable strategy. In Biofortification of Food Crops (pp. 229–236). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-2716-8_17

Soleymani, A., & Shahrajabian, M. H. (2012). The effects of Fe, Mn and Zn foliar application on yield, ash and protein percentage of forage sorghum in climatic condition of Eesfahan. International Journal of Biology, 4. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijb.v4n3p92

Sudhagar Rao G.B., R. Rex Immanuel*, S. Ramesh, G. B., & S. M. S. (2019). Effect of zinc and iron fertilization on growth and development of rice. Plant Archives, 19, 1877–1880. http://www.plantarchives.org/SPL%20ISSUE%20SUPP%202,2019/327%20(1877-1880).pdf

Suganya, A., Saravanan, A., & Manivannan, N. (2020). Role of zinc nutrition for increasing zinc availability, uptake, yield, and quality of maize (Zea Mays L.) grains: An overview. Communication in soil Science and Plant Analysis 51(15), 2001-2021. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2020.1820030

Tavakoli, M. T., Chenari, A. I., Rezaie, M., Tavakoli, A., Shahsavari, M., & Mousavi, S. R. (2014). The importance of micronutrients in agricultural production. Advances in Environmental Biology, 8, 31–35. http://www.aensiweb.net/AENSIWEB/aeb/aeb/June%202014/31-35.pdf

Xia, H., Kong, W., Wang, L., Xue, Y., Liu, W., Zhang, C., Yang., S., & Li, C. (2019). Foliar zn spraying simultaneously improved concentrations and bioavailability of zn and fe in maize grains irrespective of foliar sucrose supply. Agronomy, 9, 386. doi:10.3390/agronomy9070386

Published

2020-10-23

How to Cite

Alheidary, M. H., Al-shaheen, M. S., & Al abdullah, S. A. (2020). The Role of Sprayer`s Characteristics and Foliar Spraying for Improving the Maize Growth and Yield. Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 33(2), 182-195. https://doi.org/10.37077/25200860.2020.33.2.16

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)