Main Article Content


Two separated sets of laboratory experiments were studied for barley seeds treating using a microwave and ultraviolet irradiation. In the microwave set, seeds have been exposed to the microwave radiations (2450 MHz) for 0 sec (control, MW0), 5 sec (MW1), 10 sec (MW2), and 20 sec (MW3), while in the ultraviolet set, seeds have exposed to UV-C radiation (254 nm) for 0 min (control, UV0), 30 min (UV1), 60 min (UV2), and 120 min (UV3). The aim is to study the influences of different exposure time from MW and UV-C radiation on some barley seed germination parameters and to choose the fitting model Logistic (Log) or Gompertz (Gom) suited to cumulative germination curves under the influence of these factors.  The results of this study showed higher seed germination percentage (93.33%) at the exposure time MW2 and UV3 (88.33%), whereas the lowest value (66.67%) recorded in MW3 treatment. The results also appeared the best values at MW2 in SG, 6.24 seed day-1; in GRI, 31.19% day-1, and in GI, 87.67, as well as at UV2 in MGT, 3.32 day. The higher value of asymptotic germination barley seeds was found with Gom function (97.24%, and 88.71%) at MW2 and UV3, respectively. Besides, Gom functions at MW1 and UV2 give the highest maximum germination rates at 2,08 and 2.51% h-1, respectively. The results of the Log equation illustrated the highest value of germination percentage of the inflection point has recorded in 43.85 and 47.37 % on UV3 and MW2 treatments, respectively. For the fitting growth curve, the results have proven that the Gom function was shown the lowest values in MSE in all MW and UV exposure times, as compared with the Log function. So, the results of the Gom function were more fit for the growth curve for MW and UV treatments, as compared with the Log function.


Microwave radiation Ultraviolet radiation Germination parameters Logistic function Gompertz function inflection point

Article Details

How to Cite
Lazim, S. K. ., & Ramadhan, M. N. . (2020). Effect of Microwave and UV-C Radiation on Some Germination Parameters of Barley Seed Using Mathematical Models of Gompertz and Logistic: Analysis Study. Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 33(2), 28–41.


  1. Abu-Elsaoud, A. M. (2015). Effect of microwave electromagnetic radio frequency on germination and seedling growth consequences of six wheat Triticum aestivum L. cultivars. Advances in Environmental Biology, 9, 270-280.
  2. Abu-Elsaoud, A. M., & Qari, S. H. (2017). Influence of microwave irradiations on germination, seedling growth and electrolyte leakage of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Catrina, 16, 11-24.
  3. Aboul Fotouh, M. M., Moawad, F. G., ElNaggar H. A., Tag El-Din, M. A., & Sharaf Eldeen, H. A. (2014). Influence of seed treatment with UV-C on saline stress tolerance in green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Biological Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, 9, 391-414.
  4. Aladjadjiyan, A. (2010). Effect of microwave irradiation on seeds of lentils (Lens Culinaris, Med). Romanian Journal of Biophysics, 20, 213–221.
  5. Al Mashhdani, F. A., & Muhammed, S. S. (2016). Utilization of microwave treatments for germination and α-amylase characteristics in some cereals. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 5, 293-306.
  6. Amirnia, R. (2014). Effect of Microwave Radiation on Germination and Seedling Growth of Soybean (Glycine max) Seeds. Advances in Environmental Biology, 8, 311-314.
  7. Araujo S. S., Paparella, S., Dondi, D., Bentivoglio, A., Carbonera, D., & Balestrazzi, A. (2016). Physical methods for seed invigoration: Advents and challenges in seed technology, Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 646.
  8. Badridze, G., Kacharava, N., Chkhubianishvili, E., Rapava, L., kikvidze, M., Chanishvili, S. H., & Chigladze, L. (2015). Influence of ultraviolet irradiation and acid precipitations on the content of antioxidants in wheat leaves, Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 13, 993-1013.
  9. Berry, G. J., Cawoodf, R. J., & Flood, R. G. (1988). Curve fitting of germination data using the Richards function, Plant, Cell and Environment, 11, 183-188.
  10. Bonner, F. T., & Dell, T. R. (1976). The Weibull function: A new method of comparing seed vigor. Journal of Seed Technology, 1, 96-103.
  11. Bridges, C. D., Wu H., Sharpe, P. J. H., & Chandler J. M. (1989). Modeling distributions of crop and weed seed germination time. Weed Science, 37, 724-729. DOI:
  12. Chen, Y. P., LiuI, Y. J., Wang, X. L., Ren, Z. Y., & Yue, M. (2005). Effect of Microwave and He-Ne Laser on Enzyme Activity and Biophoton Emission of Isatis indigotica Fort. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology (Formerly Acta Botanica Sinica), 47, 849−855.
  13. Esechie, H. (1994). Interaction of salinity and temperature on the germination of sorghum. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 172, 194–199.
  14. Govindaraj, M., Masilamani, P., Albert, V. A., & Bhaskaran, M. (2017). Effect of physical seed treatment on yield and quality of crops: A review. Agricultural Reviews, 38, 1-14.
  15. Gupta, M. K., Chandra, P., Samuel, D. V. K., Singh, B., Singh, A., & Garg, M. K. (2012). Modeling of Tomato Seedling Growth in Greenhouse. Journal of Agricultural Science, 1, 362-369.
  16. Hara,Y. (1999). Calculation of population Parameters using Richards function and application of indices of growth and seed vigor to rice plants. Plant Production Science, 2, 129-135.
  17. Hsu, F. H., Nelson, C. J., & Chow, W. S. (1984). A mathematical model to utilize the logistic function in germination and seedling growth. Journal of Experimental Botany, 351, 1629-40.
  18. Iuliana, C., Caprita, R. , Giancarla, V., Sorina R., & Genoveva, B. (2013). Response of Barley Seedlings to Microwaves at 2.45 GHz. Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 46, 185-191. file:///C:/Users/lenovo/Downloads/82-999-1-PB%20(4).pdf
  19. Jakubowski, T. (2015). Evaluation of the impact of pre-sowing microwave stimulation of bean seeds of the germination process. Agricultural Engineering, 2, 45-56.
  20. Kader, M. A., (2005). A Comparison of Seed Germination Calculation Formulae and the Associated Interpretation of Resulting Data. Journal & Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 138, 65-75.
  21. Karadavut, U. , Kayi S. A., Palta, C., & Okur, O. (2008). A growth curve application to compare plant heights and dry weights of some wheat varieties. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 3, 888-892.
  22. Kretova, Y., Tsirulnichenko, L., Naumenko, N., Popova, N., & Kalinina, I. (2018). The application of micro-wave treatment to reduce barley contamination. Agronomy Research, 16, 2079- 2087.
  23. Kuzugudenli, E. (2018). Effect of microwave radiation on growth and germination of stone pine (PINUS PINEA L.) seedlings. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 16, 2837-2844. DOI:
  24. Lazim, S. K., & Nasur, A. F. (2017). The effect of magnetic field and ultraviolet-C radiation on germination and growth seedling of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS), 10, 30-36. DOI: 10.9790/2380-1010023036
  25. Lazim, S. K., & Ramadhan, M. (2020). Study effect of a static magnetic field and microwave irradiation on wheat seed germination using different curves fitting model. Journal of Green Engineering, 10, 3188-3205.
  26. Matwijczuk, A., Kornarzyñski, K., & Pietruszewski, S. (2012). Effect of magnetic field on seed germination and seedling growth of sunflower, International Agrophys, 26, 271-278.
  27. Mohammad, R. M., Campbell, W. F., & Rumbaugh, M. D. (1989) Variation in salt tolerance of alfalfa. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, 3, 11-20.
  28. Mohsenkhah, M., Mahzoon, M., & Talei, D. (2018). Microwave radiation, seed germination and seedling growth responses in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Horticulture International Journal, 2, 332‒336. DOI: 10.15406/hij.2018.02.00072
  29. Muszynski, S., & Gldyszewska, B. (2008). Representation of He-Ne laser irradiation effect on radish seeds with selected germination indices. International Agrophysics, 22, 151-157.,106487,0,2.html
  30. Nasur, A. F., & Lazim, S. K. (2001). The effect of Ultraviolet Radiation on Germination and Growth of Wheat and Barley. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 14, 157-167. https://www. researchgate. net/publication/320799155
  31. Neelamegam, R., & Sutha, T. (2015). UV-C irradiation effect on seed germination, seedling growth and productivity of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4, 430-443.
  32. Oraki, H.; Alahdadi, I., & khajani, F. P. (2011). Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids seeds distribution modelling: Normal, lognormal and weibull models. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6, 618-623.
  33. Peykarestan, B., & Seify, M. (2012). UV irradiation effects on seed germination and growth, protein content, peroxidase and protease activity in red bean. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3, 92-102.
  34. Rogozhin, V. V., Kuriliuk, T. T., & Filippova, N. P. (2000). Change in the reaction of the antioxidant system of wheat sprouts after UV-irradiation of seeds. Biofizika, 45, 730-736.
  35. Rupiasih, N. N., & Vidyasagar, P. B. (2016). Effect of UV-C radiation and hypergravity on germination, growth and content chlorophyll of wheat seedlings // AIP Conference Proceeding. 1719, 030035.
  36. Sadeghianfar, P., Nazari, M., & Backes, G. (2019). Exposure to ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation increases germination rate of maize (Zea maize L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) seeds. Plants, 8, 1-6.
  37. Siddiqui, A., Dawar, S., Zaki M. J., & Hamid, N. (2011). Role of Ultra violet (UV-C) radiation in the control of root infecting fungi on groundnut and mung bean. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43, 2221-2224.
  38. Soltani, E., Ghaderi-Far, F., Baskin, C. C., & Baskin, J. M. (2015). Problems with using mean germination time to calculate rate of seed germination. Australian Journal of Botany, 63, 631-635.
  39. Sousa, I. F., Neto, J. E. K., Muniz, J. A., Guimaraes, R. M.; Savian, T. V., & Muniz, F. R. (2014). Fitting non lin arauto regressive models to describe coffee seed germination. Ciencia Rural, 44, 2016-2021.
  40. Szparaga, A., & Czerwinska, E. (2017). Modelling of beetroot seedlings with modified generalized logistic functions. Agricultural Engineering, 21, 107-117.
  41. Torres, M., Boada, P. S., & Duran, J. M. (1988). Growth analysis by different mathematical models of barley plants after U.V. -A irradiation. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 28, 315-321.
  42. Wang, S., Wang, J., & Guo, Y. (2018) Microwave irradiation enhances the germination rate of tartary buckwheat and content of some compounds in its sprouts. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 68, 195-205.