Main Article Content


Dietary intake of contaminated food with heavy metals may cause severe risk for the human health. Heavy metals affect adversely a human health. The current study assessed the concentrations of heavy metals including Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) of urban and rural areas in Bangladesh. The experimental samples of fresh eggplant fruits were collected from six local markets in Jashore, Bangladesh, and the tissues were extracted with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Trace elements in eggplant fruits were estimated with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Obtained result show that Heavy metal concentrations were high in the urban areas compared to rural areas.  Heavy metals in the eggplant fruits of rural and urban areas were: Pb (2.74-18.64), Cu (10.20-67.16), Ni (46.63-148.46), and Zn (86.65-148.73) respectively. The concentrations of Pb, Ni and Zn in eggplant were at an excess of safe limits according to the Food and Agriculture and World Health Organizations. While, Cu was lower than the maximum safe limit. The present study concluded that growing eggplants in Jashore areas are heavily contaminated with Pb, Ni and Zn that would be hazardous for consumer’s health. The result of this study will be beneficial for the agricultural policy makers in Bangladesh to take appropriate action and reduce the heavy metal toxicity among fresh food products.


Atomic absorption spectrometer Copper Lead Nickel Nitric acid Zinc

Article Details

How to Cite
Alam, M. ., Ahmed, S. ., Halder, P. ., Razon, A. H. ., Shuvo, S. D. ., Parvin, R. ., Elahi, M. T. ., Paul, D. K. ., & Zahid, M. A. . (2023). Assessment of Heavy Metals in Eggplant Fruit from Urban and Rural Areas of Bangladesh. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 36(2), 99–108.


  1. Abrham, F., & Gholap, A. V. (2021). Analysis of heavy metal concentration in some vegetables using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Pollution, 7(1),205–216.
  3. Ajasa, A. M. O., Bello, M. O., Ibrahim, A. O., Ogunwande, I. A., & Olawore, N. O. (2004). Heavy trace metals and macronutrients status in herbal plants of Nigeria. Food Chemistry, 85(1), 67–71.
  5. Al Jassir, M. S., Shaker, A., & Khaliq, M. A. (2005). Deposition of heavy metals on green leafy vegerables sold on roadsides of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 75(5), 1020-1027.
  7. Ali, Z., Xu, Z. L., Zhang, D. Y., He, X. L., Bahadur, S., & Yi, J. X. (2011). Molecular diversity analysis of eggplant (Solanum melongena) genetic resources. Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR, 10(2),1141–1155.
  9. Antonious, G. F., Turley, E. T., Sikora, F., & Snyder, J. C. (2008). Heavy metal mobility in runoff water and absorption by eggplant fruits from sludge treated soil. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes, 43(6), 526–532.
  11. Awal, A., Rahman, M. M., Alam, M. Z., & Khan, M. M. H. (2017). Management of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) using some selected insecticides in field condition, Bangladesh. Jahangirnagar University Journal of Biological Sciences, 6(1), 35–43.
  13. Das, S., Raychaudhuri, U., Falchi, M., Bertelli, A., Braga, P. C., & Das, D. K. (2011). Cardioprotective properties of raw and cooked eggplant (Solanum melongena L). Food & Function, 2(7), 395–399.
  15. Demirezen, D., & Aksoy, A. (2006). Heavy metal levels in vegetables in turkey are within safe limits for Cu, Zn, Ni and exceeded for Cd and Pb. Journal of Food Quality, 29(3),252–265.
  17. Khan, S., Cao, Q., Zheng, Y. M., Huang, Y. Z., & Zhu, Y. G. (2008). Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987), 152(3), 686–692.
  19. Lindenmayer, R., Lu, L., Eivazi, F., & Afrasiabi, Z. (2023). Atomic spectroscopy-based analysis of heavy metals in seaweed species. Applied Sciences (Basel,Switzerland), 13(8),4764.
  21. Lokeshwari, H., & Chandrappa, G. T. (2006). Impact of heavy metal contamination of Bellandur Lake on soil and cultivated vegetation. Current Science, 91(5),622–627.
  23. Qadir, S. A., Sabr, H. A., & Younis, A. M. (2022). Growth performance of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) Under drought condition and sewage water irrigation. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 35(1), 21–34.
  25. Quamruzzaman, A. K. M., Khatun, A., & Islam, F. (2020). Nutritional content and health benefits of Bangladeshi eggplant cultivars. European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 2(4).
  27. Nasidi, N. M., Wayayok, A., Abdullah, A. F., Kassim, M. S. M., & Shanono, N. J. (2021). Spatial variability of soil erodibility in response to different agricultural land use at highland farms. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 34(Special 1), 41–53.
  29. Salgueiro, M. J., Zubillaga, M., Lysionek, A., Sarabia, M. I., Caro, R., De Paoli, T., Hager, A., Weill, R., & Boccio, J. (2000). Zinc as an essential micronutrient: A review. Nutrition Research, 20(5), 737-755.
  31. Santos, E. E., Lauria, D. C., & Porto da Silveira, C. L. (2004). Assessment of daily intake of trace elements due to consumption of foodstuffs by adult inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro city. The Science of the Total Environment, 327(1–3), 69-79.
  33. Sarker, A., Kim, J.-E., Islam, A. R. M. T., Bilal, M., Rakib, M. R. J., Nandi, R., Rahman, M. M., & Islam, T. (2022). Heavy metals contamination and associated health risks in food webs—a review focuses on food safety and environmental sustainability in Bangladesh. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 29(3), 3230–3245.
  35. Sharma, R. K., Agrawal, M., & Marshall, F. (2006). Heavy metal contamination in vegetables grown in wastewater irrigated areas of Varanasi, India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 77(2), 312–318.
  37. Singh, K. P., Mohan, D., Sinha, S., & Dalwani, R. (2004). Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area. Chemosphere, 55(2), 227–255.
  39. Voutsa, D., Grimanis, A., & Samara, C. (1996). Trace elements in vegetables grown in an industrial area in relation to soil and air particulate matter. Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987), 94(3),325–335.