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The increase in aluminum ion concentration resulting from chemical coagulants in water treatment causes human health problems, including damage to brain cells and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, numerous countries sought to find alternative coagulants extracted from natural, environmentally friendly organic sources for use in water treatment. The research included preparing an aqueous extract from orange peel, extracting luffa mucilage, as well as, calculating the yield, estimating the size of mucilage particles, and using them as plant coagulants to purify turbid water. Moreover, the optimum conditions were set for it, represented by the concentration of coagulants and the pH to give the highest efficiency in purifying turbid water. As well as using them as coagulation aids with alum to reduce the concentration of alum used in water purification. The results indicated that the optimum concentrations of natural coagulants ranged 40-50 ppm, where the orange peel coagulant exceeded the luffa coagulant with a significant difference in the turbidity removal, as it was 87 and 71% respectively, at pH values of 5 and 10. Likewise, there were significant differences in the reduction of heavy elements by using coagulants in water treatment. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the percentages of turbidity removal between the mixing ratio 1:0.5 and 1:0.25 (coagulant aid: Alum). Conversely, the use of the optimum concentration of orange peel coagulant with half the alum concentration gave turbidity removal percentages close to the use of alum alone in purifying water. It can be concluded from the study the possibility of using the extracted plant coagulants to reduce the concentration of alum used in purifying turbid water. The results reveled the highest significant decrease in the concentration of all heavy elements using luffa fruit coagulant and orange peel coagulant, compared to their concentration in turbid water before purification, which was 0.4 ppm.


Alum Heavy metals Natural coagulant aids Turbidity removal

Article Details

How to Cite
Al-Aubadi, I. M. K. ., & Hashim, L. Q. . (2022). Purification of Turbid Water Using Orange Peel Extract and Luffa Mucilage. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 35(2), 259–270.


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