Main Article Content


In this study, peat, compost and charcoal were added to reduce groundwater pollution with thiamethoxam by soil columns. Iodide has been used as a water tracer at a rate of 10 mL (0.1 M) for each soil column and that leached fast in all soil columns. The breakthrough curve of thiamethoxam was appeared from leachates of calcareous soil column and alluvial soil column with iodide. Accordingly it is considered thiamethoxam is highly mobile compound in tested soils. The addition of soil amendments reduced downward movement and significantly increased cumulative percentage of thiamethoxam from soil columns. After application; 85.21, 93.23, 98.12 and 97.84 % of applied thiamethoxam were recovered in leachates of alluvial soil, 5% peat-soil, 5% compost-soil and 5% charcoal-soil. While; 91.50, 99.30, 94.09 and 86.89 % from calcareous soil, 5% peat-soil, 5% compost-soil and 5% charcoal-soil columns. This is first study to assess, leaching of thiamethoxam and effect of soil amendments on leaching by soil columns. This information can be used to understand how alterations in agricultural practices and potential effects to groundwater.


Charcoal Compost Leaching Peat Soil Thiamethoxam

Article Details

How to Cite
Fouad, M. R. . (2023). Effect of Soil Amendments on Leaching of Thiamethoxam in Alluvial and Calcareous Soil. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 36(1), 164–172.


  1. Al-Farttoosy, A. H., & Al Sadoon, J. N. (2022). Comparison of different coefficients‎ to know the kinetic behaviour of glyphosate‎ in soil column. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 35(2), 110-118.
  3. Aly, M. I., R Fouad, M., S Abou-Elnasr, H., & F El-Aswad, A. (2021). Comparison of dissipation kinetics and residual behaviour for fenitrothion insecticide and thiobencarb herbicide in clay soil. Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 66(1), 1-11.
  5. Badawy, M. E., El-Aswad, A. F., Aly, M. I., & Fouad, M. R. (2017). Effect of different soil treatments on dissipation of chlorantraniliprole and dehydrogenase activity using experimental modeling design. International Journal of Advanced Research in Chemical Science, 4, 7-23.
  7. Cox, L., Celis, R., Hermosin, M. C., Becker, A., & Cornejo, J. (1997). Porosity and herbicide leaching in soils amended with olive-mill wastewater. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 65(2), 151-161.‏
  9. El-Aswad, A. F., Aly, M. I., Fouad, M. R., & Badawy, M. E. (2019). Adsorption and thermodynamic parameters of chlorantraniliprole and dinotefuran on clay loam soil with difference in particle size and pH. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 54(6), 475-488.‏
  11. El-Aswad, A. F., Fouad, M. R., Badawy, M. E., & Aly, M. I. (2022). Effect of Calcium Carbonate Content on Potential Pesticide Adsorption and Desorption in Calcareous Soil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 1-9.
  13. Elhady, O. M., Mansour, E. S., Elwassimy, M. M., Zawam, S. A., Drar A. M., & Abdel-Raheem Sh. A. A. (2022) Selective synthesis, characterization, and toxicological activity screening of some furan compounds as pesticidal agents. Current Chemistry Letters, 11(3) 285-290.
  15. Fouad, M. R. (2022a). Validation of adsorption-desorption kinetic models for fipronil and thiamethoxam agrichemicals on three soils in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Chemistry.
  17. Fouad, M. R., (2022b). Effect of temperature and soil type on the adsorption and desorption isotherms of thiamethoxam using the Freundlich equation. Egyptian Journal of Chemistry.‏
  19. Fouad, M. R. (2023a). Physical characteristics and Freundlich model of adsorption and desorption isotherm for fipronil in six types of Egyptian soil. Current Chemistry Letters, 12(1), 207-216.
  21. Fouad M. R. (2023b). Effect of peat, compost, and charcoal on transport of fipronil in clay loam soil and sandy clay loam soil. Current Chemistry Letters, 12.‏
  22. 10.5267/j.ccl.2022.12.011
  23. Fouad, M. R., Badawy, M. E., El-Aswad, A. F., & Aly, M. I. (2023). Experimental modeling design to study the effect of different soil treatments on the dissipation of metribuzin herbicide with effect on dehydrogenase activity Current Chemistry Letters, 12.‏
  25. Gaber, H., Inskeep, W., Comfort, S., and El-Attar H. (1992). A test of the local equilibrium assumption for adsorption and transport of picloram. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 56(5), 1392-1400.
  27. Hilton, M. J., Jarvis, T. D., & Ricketts, D. C. (2016). The degradation rate of thiamethoxam in European field studies. Pest Management Science, 72(2), 388-397.‏
  29. Jones, D. L., Edwards-Jones, G., & Murphy, D. V. (2011). Biochar mediated alterations in herbicide breakdown and leaching in soil. Soil biology and Biochemistry, 43(4), 804-813.‏
  31. Majumdar, K., & Singh, N. (2007). Effect of soil amendments on sorption and mobility of metribuzin in soils. Chemosphere, 66(4), 630-637.‏
  33. Mendham, J., Denney, R., Barnes, J., Thomas, M., Denney, R., & Thomas M. (2000). Vogel's Quantitative Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall, New York, 71, 65-70.
  34. Morrissey, C. A., Mineau, P., Devries, J. H., Sanchez-Bayo, F., Liess, M., Cavallaro, M. C., & Liber, K. (2015). Neonicotinoid contamination of global surface waters and associated risk to aquatic invertebrates: a review. Environment international, 74, 291-303.‏
  36. Navarro, R., Guzman, J., Saucedo, I., Revilla, J., & Guibal, E. (2007). Vanadium recovery from oil fly ash by leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction processes. Waste Management, 27(3), 425-438.
  38. Nasidi, N. M., Wayayok, A., Abdullah, A. F., Kassim, M. S., & Shanono, N. J. (2021). Spatial variability of soil erodibility in response to different agricultural land use at highland farms. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 34(Special Issue 1), 41-53.
  40. Peres, F. S. C., Petter, F. A., Sinhorin, A. P., de Lima, L. B., Tavanti, T. R., da Silva Freddi, O., & Marimon Junior, B. H. (2022). Influence of biochar on the sorption and leaching of thiamethoxan in soil. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 57(2), 153-163.
  42. Perry, D. G., Kusel, S. J., & Perry, L. C. (1988). Victims of peer aggression. Developmental psychology, 24(6), 807.
  44. Saleem, F. M., Al-Saad, H. T., & Al-Hejuje, M. M. (2022). Using toxic equivalent quotients (TEQs) to evaluate the risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds in soil at Basrah Governorate, Iraq. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 35(2), 160-172.‏
  46. Salisu, A., Aimrun, W., Abdullah, A. F., & Kamal, R. M. (2021a). Characterization of clay soil and zolite powder as materials for the production of irrigation porous pipes. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 34(Special Issue 1), 100-107.
  48. Salisu, A., Wayayok, A., Abdallah, A. F., & Kamal, R. M. (2021b). Discharge characterization and variability determination along shorter sections of soaker hose pipe for soil column experiment. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 34(Special Issue 1), 92-99.
  50. Shipitalo, M. J., Edwards, W. M., Owens, L. B., & Dick, W. A. (1990). Initial storm effects on macropore transport of surface‐applied chemicals in no‐till soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 54(6), 1530-1536.‏
  52. Shamsan, A. Q. S., Fouad, M. R., Yacoob, W. A. R. M., Abdul-Malik M. A., & Abdel-Raheem, Sh. A. A. (2023). Performance of a variety of treatment processes to purify wastewater in the food industry. Current Chemistry Letters,‏ 12(2), 431-438.
  54. Si, Y., Zhang, J., Wang, S., Zhang, L., & Zhou, D. (2006). Influence of organic amendment on the adsorption and leaching of ethametsulfuron-methyl in acidic soils in China. Geoderma, 130(1-2), 66-76.‏
  56. Tatarková, V., Hiller, E., & Vaculík, M. (2013). Impact of wheat straw biochar addition to soil on the sorption, leaching, dissipation of the herbicide (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid and the growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 92, 215-221.