The Application of Manure (Poultry Wastes) and Bio-Formulations of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride and Their Interaction to Control Root-knot Disease on Radish and Chard
Keywords:Nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, Biological control, radish, Chard, Trichoderma
The study was designed to examine the effect of manure (poultry wastes) and bio-formulations of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride separately or with some, to control root-knot disease on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and chard (Beta vulagaris var.cicla (L.)). The study included the isolation of pathogenic nematode of both plant roots, morphological and molecular identification, examination of the pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo and green house experiments involved application of manure and fungal bio-formulations treatments. The morphological and molecular identification confirmed the identity of root-knot nematode, as Meloidogyne javanica, which was pathogenic to radish and chard. The recorded infection severity was 89 and 95% respectively. The green house experiment results revealed that MThTv treatment was significantly reduced infection severity to 0% for radish and chard in contaminated soil (CS) compared with control positive treatment (55.17 and 40%) respectively. MThTv treatment also showed a highest plant height for Radish in non-nematode-contaminated soil (NCS) and CS treatment (17.85 and 16.50 cm) respectively compared with control positive treatment (5.00 cm), while the highest plant height of Chard was 24.5 cm in MThTv-NCS. The wet weight index in Radish showed a superiority of MThTv and MTh in NC on other treatments (201.75 and 189.5 g.plant-1) respectively followed by MThTv-NCS treatment (184.5 g.plant-1) compared with 19.25 gm.plant-1 in control treatment. In Chard the results showed similar pattern represented by superiority of MThTv-NC treatment (255.25 gm.plant-1) followed by MThTv-NCS (190.75 gm.plant-1) compared with 37.50 gm/plant for positive control.
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