Main Article Content


The principal goal of this study was to evaluate whether dietary vitamin E  and pumpkin seed oil would affect  the productive, physiological and reproductive performance of Japanese quail by using 120 birds at 22 weeks of age. The birds were randomly distribution into five dietary groups 24 birds each group contain three replicated pens, as follow: First group: kept on basal diet without any addition as control group, second and third groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 150  and 200 mg/ kg vitamin E / kg of diet, fourth and fifth groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 15 and 30 ml/kg pumpkin seed oil /kg of diet respectively. The results showed a significant improvement in egg production (H.D%), egg number, egg weight and egg mass produced for the vitamin E (200mg/ kg of diet) compared with the other groups. Additionally, the results showed that vitamin E (200mg/ kg of diet) significantly increased gonads relative weight , testes development,  egg characterizes and serum testosterone, estrogen, FSH and LH hormones compared with other groups. Also , the birds were fed on 15 and 30 ml seed pumpkin oil/ kg of diet were significantly increased in the most parameter compared with control group. It can be concluded that the addition of vitamin E (200 mg/kg of diet) and pumpkin seed oil (30ml of diet), had positive effects on gonads, testicular histology, egg production and serum testosterone, estrogen, FSH and LH hormones concentration.


Vitamin E Pumpkin seed oil Reproductive parameter Japanese quail

Article Details

How to Cite
Al-Salhie, K. C. K. ., Al-Hummod, S. K. M., & Abbas, R. J. . (2017). Effect of Supplementation Different Levels of Vitamin E and Pumpkin Seed Oil to the Diet on Productive, Physiological and Reproductive Performance of Japanese Quail. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 30(2), 50–58.


  1. Abbas, R. J.; AlShaheen, S.A. & Majeed, T.I. (2016). Effect of supplementing different levels of pumpkin seed oil in the diets of spent laying Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Association of Genetic and Environmental Resources Conservation (AGERC) Proceeding of the 4th International Conference of Genetic and Environment, Cairo, Egypt, 4(3): 842-853.
  2. Al-Attar, A. M. (2011). Antioxidant effect of vitamin E treatment on some heavy metal induced renal and testicular injuries in male mice. Saudi J. Bio. Sci., 18: 63-72.
  3. Al-Salhie, K. Ch. K. (2014). Effect of vitamin A on some productive, physiological and histological traits of the local ducks (Anaspater hycous).Journal of Basrah research (Sciences), 40(2): 14-22.
  4. Al-Zuhairu, H.: Abdel-fattah, A.A. & El-sayedi, M.I.(2000). Pumpkin-seed oil modulates the effect of felodipine and captopril in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pharmacol. Res, 41(5): 555-563.
  5. Bairy, P. & Rao, Y. (2010). Reproductive toxicity of sodium valproate in male rats. Indian J. Pharmacology, 42(2): 90-94.
  6. Bourre J.; Dumont, O. & Durand, G. (2004). Dose-effect of dietary oleic acid: Oleic acid is conditionally essential for some organs. Reproduction Nutrition Development, EDP Sciences, 44 (4): 371-380.
  7. Chaturvedi, C.M.; Bhatt, R. & Phillips, D. (1993). Photoperiodism in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with special reference to relative refractoriness. Int. J. Exp. Biol, 31: 417-421.
  8. Chitra, P.; Edwin, S.C. & Moorthy, M. (2014). .Effect of dietary vitamin and selenium supplementation on Japanese quail broiler, Ind. J. Vet. & Anim. Sci. Res, 43(3): 195-205.
  9. Ciftci, M.; Ertas, O.N. & Guler, T. (2005). Effect of vitamin E and vitamin C dietary supplementation on egg production and egg quality of laying hens exposed to chronic stress. Rev. Med. Vet., 156(2): 107-111.
  10. Deivendran, R. & Yeong, H. (2015). Effects of dietary vitamin E on fertility functions in poultry species. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 16: 9910-9921.
  11. El-Adawy, T.A. & Taha, K.M. (2001). Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin and paprika seed oils and flours. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49(3): 1253-1259.
  12. El-Boghdady, N.A. (2011). Protective effect of ellagicacid and pumpkin seed oil against methotrexate induced small intestine damage in rats. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 48(6): 380-387.
  13. Findlay, J.K.; Kerr, J.B.; Britt, K.; Liew, S.H.; Simpson, E.R.; Rosairo, D. & Drummond, A. (2009). Ovarian physiology follicle development, oocyte and hormone relationships Anim. Reprod., 6(1): 16-19.
  14. Froman, D. P.; Feltmann, A.J.; Pendarvis, K.; Cooksey, A.M.; Burgess, S.C. & Rhoads, D.D. (2011). Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: A proteome-based model for sperm mobility phenotype. J. Anim. Sci., 89: 1330-1337.
  15. Fruhwirth, G.O. & Hermetter, A. (2007). Seeds and oil of the styrian oil pumpkin: Components and biological activities. Euro. J. Lipid Sci. & Techn., 109: 1128-1140.
  16. Gey, K.F. (1998). Vitamins E plus C and interacting co-nutrients required for optimal health Biofactor 7: 113-174.
  17. Glew, R.H.; Glew, R.S.; Chuang, L.-T.; Huang, Y.S.; Millson, M. & Constans, D. (2006). Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp.) and cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 61: 51-56.
  18. Gridley, M.F. (1960). Manual of histologic and special staining technique. McGraw-Hill Book Company, INC, New York.
  19. Hashemi J. M. (2013). Pumpkin seed oil and vitamin E improve reproductive function of male rats inflicted by testicular injury. World Appl. Sci. J., 23(10): 1351-1359.
  20. Hosna, H.; Hasanabadi, A. & Waldroup, P.W. (2011). Effects of dietary supplementation with Pumpkin oil (Cucurbita pepo) on performance and blood fat of broiler chickens during finisher period. American J. Animal and Vet. Sci., 6(1): 40-44.
  21. Jerysz, A. & Lukaszewicz, E. (2013). Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E on ganders' response to semen collection and ejaculate characteristics. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 153(1-3): 196-204.
  22. Lovejoy, J.C. (2002). The influence of dietary fats in insulin resistance. Curr. Diab. Rep., 2(5): 430-440.
  23. Mattsson, A. & Brunström, B. (2010). Effects on differentiation of reproductive organs and sexual behaviour in Japanese quail by excessive embryonic ER? activation. Reprod. Fertility. Develop., 22: 416-425.
  24. Mezes, M. & Hides, A. (1992). Is there lipid peroxidation induced Malondialdehyde production during egg shell formation? Acta Vet. Hungarica, 40: 297-301.
  25. Moller, A. P. (1994). Directional selection on directional asymmetry: Testes size and secondary sexual characters in birds. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., 258(B): 147-151.
  26. Murkovic, M.; Hillebrand A. & Winkler J. (1996). Variability of fatty acid content in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.). Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch, 203(3): 216-219.
  27. Muthu, K. & Krishnamoorthy, P. (2012). Effect of vitamin C and vitamin E on mercuric chloride induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Bio. Chem. Pharm., 1: 7.
  28. Nakiae, S.N.; Rade, D.; Kevin, D.; Strucelj, D.; Mokrovèak, Z. & Bartoliae, M. (2006). Chemical characteristics of oils from naked and husk seeds of Cucurbita pepo L. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol.,108: 936-943.
  29. Procida, G.; Snatcher, B.; Cateni, F. & Zaccchigna, M. (2012). Chemical composition and functional characterization of commercial pumpkin seed oil. J. Sci. Food Agric., 30;93(5): 1035-1041.
  30. Ramaswamy, S. & Weinbauer, G. F. (2014). Endocrine control of spermatogenesis: Role of FSH and LH/ testosterone. Spermatogenesis 4(2): 1-15.
  31. Rengaraj, D. & Hong, Y.H. (2015). Effects of dietary vitamin E on fertility functions in poultry species. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 30:16(5): 9910-9921.
  32. Ryan, E.; Galvin, K.; O’Connor, T.P.; Maguire, A.R. & O’Brien, N.M. (2007). Phytosterols, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains and legumes. Plant Foods and Human Nutrition, 62: 85-91.
  33. Sahin, K.; Sahin, N. & Onderci, M. (2002). Vitamin E supplementation can alleviate negative effects of heat stress on egg production, egg quality, digestibility of nutrients and egg yolk mineral concentra¬tions of Japanese quails. Res. Vet. Sci., 73: 307-312.
  34. Sato, S. F. (2004). Role of fatty acid composition in the development of metabolic disorders in sucrose induced obese rats. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 229(6): 486-493.
  35. SPSS, (2009). Static Analysis program version 18.
  36. Srbinoska, M.; Hrabovski, N.; Rafajlovska, V. & Sinadinovic-Fiser, S. (2012). Characterization of the seed and seed extracts of Pumpkins Cucurbita maxima D and Cucurbita pepo L. from Macedonia. Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering., 31(1): 65-78 .
  37. Stevenson, D. G.; Eller, F. J.; Wang, L.; Jane, J. L.; Wang, T. & Inglett, G. E. (2007). Oil and tocopherol content and composition of pumpkin seed oil in 12 cultivars. J. Agric. & Food Chem., 55(10): 4005-4013.
  38. Sultan, A.T.M.; Shawket, T.F. & Al-Salhie, K. Ch. K. (2017). The role of vitamin C in reducing the salt stress. Lambert Academic Publ., Moldova:58pp.
  39. Younis, D. Th. (2014). Effect of antioxidant enhancement on productive performance and some physiological characters of broiler breeders reared under hot climate. Iraqi J. Vet. Sci., 28(2): 81-85.
  40. Zdu?czyk, Z.; Dra?bo, A.; Jankowski, J.; Ju?kiewicz, J.; Antoszkiewicz, Z. & Troszy?ska, A. (2013). The effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplements on the fatty acid profile and quality traits of eggs, Archiv, Tierzucht 56(72): 719-732.