Main Article Content

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the potential effects of branch bending angle on the plant physiological characteristics, mineral nutrients accumulation and fruit quality of wax apple. Different treatments with five replicates each by Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) layouts were arranged in this study. All the treatments represent different branch angles which were at 5˚ (control), 20˚, 45˚, 65˚ and 85˚ from vertical axis. Leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD chlorophyll index) was significantly affected by different bending treatments at a budding stage, flowering, fruit development and after harvesting of wax apple. Total soluble solids (TSS) content in the leaves of bent branches increased significantly at before bud development, flowering, fruit ripening and after harvesting stages of wax apple trees. During fruit development and maturation stages, leaf TSS content was decreased in all bent branches. The results showed that 20˚ to 65˚ angle bent branches increase weight and firmness of fruit, fruit diameter and produced dark-coloured fruit compared to control. The results showed that 65˚ bent branches give the highest potassium (K+) and magnesium (Mg2+) content in the fruits. Higher sodium (Na+), iron (Fe2+) and calcium (Ca2+) content in fruits were found in 20˚ bent branches.  There was a positive correlation between fruit TSS with Mg2+ (r = 0.70), with Na+ (r = 0.67) and with Ca2+ (0.57) content in the bent branches of wax apple. Fruit TSS content also positively correlated with firmness and peel colour of wax apple fruits. The number of fruit, fruit weight and fruit diameter of wax apple also positively correlated (weak) with leaves TSS content. It can be concluded that 20˚ to 65˚ branch bending angle are promising for enhancing plant physiology, fruit growth and quality of wax apple fruits.

Keywords

Wax apple Branch bending angle Chlorophyll fruit Mineral element Quality

Article Details

How to Cite
Khandaker, M. M. ., Ismail, N. H. ., Abdullahi, U. A. ., Alam, M. . A. ., Badaluddin, N. A. ., & Mohd, K. S. . (2021). Tree Physiology, Fruit Growth and Nutrient Elements of Wax Apple (Syzygium Samarangense) as Affected by Branch Bending Angle. Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 34(1), 206–221. https://doi.org/10.37077/25200860.2021.34.1.18

References

  1. Aly, M. A., Thanaa, M. E., Abd El-messeih, W. M., & El-demerdash, H. E. (2012). Effect of Shoot Bending, Shoot Girdling and GA3 Application Treatments on Growth, Fruit Set %, Yield and Fruit Quality of "Le Conte" Pear. Alexandria Science Exchange Journal, 33, 186-195. https://asejaiqjsae.journals.ekb.eg/article_3154_1f20c2f78e73f6a667555af7ad8a941f.pdf
  2. Bagchi, T. B., Sukul, P., & Ghosh, B. (2008). Biochemical changes during off-season flowering in guava (Psidium guajava L.) induced by bending and pruning. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 46, 64-66. http://jtropag.kau.in/index.php/ojs2/article/view/191
  3. Benitez, C., Insua, E., Dupart, F., Grotte, M., Retamales, J. B., Moggia, C. I., Bando, M. P., Torres, C., & Zoffoli, J. P. (1998). Fruit placement on the tree and its influence on maturity and quality of pears. Acta Horticulture, 475, 527-533. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1998.475.64
  4. Kefford, N. P., & Goldacre, P. L. (1961). The changing concept of Auxin. American Journal of Botany, 48, 643-650. https://doi.org/10.2307/2439378.
  5. Cheng, Y. H., Arakawa, O., Kasai, M., & Sawada, S. (2008). Analysis of reduced photosynthesis in the apple leaf under sink-limited conditions due to girdling. Journal of Japanese Society of Horticultural Science, 77, 115–121. https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs1.77.115
  6. George, A. P., Hieke, S., Rasmussen, T., & Lüdders, P. (1996). Early shading reduces fruit yield and late shading reduces quality in low-chill peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) in subtropical. Australian Journal of Horticulture Science, 71, 561- 571. doi:10.1080/14620316.1996.11515436.
  7. Han, H. H., Coutand, C., Cochard, H., Trottier, C., & Lauri, P. E. (2007). Effects of shoot bending on lateral fate and hydraulics: invariant and changing traits across five apple genotypes. Journal of Experimental Botany, 58, 3537–3547. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erm200
  8. Ito, A., Yaegaki, H., Hayama, H., Kusaba, S., Yamaguchi, I. & Yoshioka, H. (1999). Bending shoots stimulates flowering and influences hormone levels in lateral buds of Japanese pear. Horticulture Science, 34, 1224–1228. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.34.7.1224
  9. Li-Tain, H., Huang-Wei, D., Meng-Znac, Q., LiTh., Huang-W.D., & Zo, M. (1996). Study on the mechanism of flower bud induction in apple tree. Acta Phytophysiol-Sininca, 22, 251-257. https://doi.org/ 10.2478/V10133-010-0003-9
  10. Li, K. T., & Lakso, A. N. (2004). Photosynthetic characteristics of apple spur leaves after summer pruning to improve exposure to light. Hort Science 39,969–972. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.39.5.969
  11. Li, Y. W., Han, M. Y., Fan C. H., & Liu, N. (2006). Effect of different branch angles on apple fruit quality. [Chinese] Journal of Northwest Sci Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry- Natural Science Edition. 34, 157-159. http://www.xjnykx.com/EN/Y2013/V50/I8/1462
  12. Lopez, R., Badel, E., Peraudeau, S., Leblanc-Fournier, N., Beaujard, F., Julien, J. L H., Cochard, & Moulia, B. (2014). Tree shoot bending generates hydraulic pressure pulses: a new long-distance signal? Journal of Experimental Botany, 65, 1997–2008. doi: 10.1093/jxb/eru045.
  13. Khandaker, M. M., Hossain, A. S., Osman, N., & Boyce, A. N. (2011). Application of girdling for improved fruit retention, yield and fruit quality in Syzygium samarangense under field conditions. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 13, 18–24. doi. 10390/AUM/2011/13–1–18–24
  14. Khandaker, M.M., Hossain A.B.M., Osman, N., & Boyce, A. N. (2012a). Physiochemical and Phytochemical Properties of Wax Apple (Syzygium samarangense [Blume] Merrill & L. M. Perry var. Jambu Madu) as Affected by Growth Regulator Application. The Scientific World Journal, 2012, 728613, 13pp. https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/728613
  15. Khandaker, M.M., Osman, N & Boyce, A.N. (2012b). The influence of hydrogen peroxide on the growth, development and quality of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense, [Blume] Merrill & L.M. Perry var. jambu madu) fruits. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 53, 101-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2012.01.016.
  16. Khandaker, M. M., Amirah, F. N., Majrashi, A., Sajili, M. H., Mohd, K. S., & Mat, N. (2018). Peel colour, anthocyanin, TSS content and sensory evaluation of some common fruits: A comparative study. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 12, 1788-1795. https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11. p1489
  17. Mamun, A., Rahman, M., & Rahim, M. (2013). Effect of Shoot Bending and Fruit Thinning on Productivity of Guava. Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Research, 5, 167-172. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/adc1/c26fc6fd95f5c67c0ef349be52a2ab8c388b.pdf
  18. Maimaiti, A., Abuduwaili, M., Jinjing, W., & Guo Jie, L. (2013). Effect of cutting back and branch heading on photosynthetic characteristics of new shoots. Journal of China Agricultural University, 18, 126 – 131. http://caod.oriprobe.com/articles/41131676/
  19. Moneruzzaman, K. M., Hossain, A. B. M. S., Normaniza, O., & Boyce, A. N. (2011). Growth, yield and quality responses to gibberellic acid (GA3) of Wax apple Syzygium samarangense var. Jambu air madu fruits grown under field conditions. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 11911-11918. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/96224
  20. Moneruzzaman, K. M., Jahan, S. Md., Nashriyah, M., & Boyce, A. N. (2015). Bioactive constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three cultivars of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense L.) fruits. Research Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 1-10. https://worldresearchersassociations.com/Archives/RJBT/Vol(10)2015/January2015.aspx
  21. Morton, J. F. (1987). Fruits of Warm Climates. Miami, Florida,. 517 pp. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/5610
  22. Nakasone, H. Y., & Paull, R. E. (1998). Tropical Fruits. CAB International, Wallingford, 132-148. https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19980307057
  23. Nurnaeimah, N., Mat, N., Suryati Mohd, K., Badaluddin, N. A., Yusoff, N., Sajili, M. H., Mahmud, K., Mohd Adnan, A. F., & Khandaker, M. M. (2020). The effects of hydrogen peroxide on plant growth, mineral accumulation, as well as biological and chemical properties of Ficus deltoidea. Agronomy 2020, 10, 599. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040599
  24. Nasr, M. M., Shakweer, N. H., Asad, S. A., & Atalla, E. S. (2015). Effect of Some Horticultural Practices on Fruit Set, Yield and Quality of" Le-Conte" Pear Trees. Middle East Journal of Applied Sciences, 5, 1115-1127. http://www.curresweb.com/mejas/mejas/2015/1115-1127.pdf
  25. Reaves, R. M. (1959). Histological and histochemical changes in the developing and ripening peaches. American Journal of Botany, 46, 214–248. https://doi.org/10.2307/2439668
  26. Rees, T. A. P., Dixon, W. L., Pollock, C. J., & Franks, F. (1981). Low temperature sweetening of higher plants. 41–60. In Friend, J., & Robert, M. J. C. (Eds.). Recent Advances in the Biochemistry of Fruits and Vegetables. Academic Press, London, 275pp. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4622(96)02202-8
  27. Rosnah, J., Mat, N., Suryati Mohd, K., Afiza Badaluddin, N., Mahmud, K., Hailmi Sajili, M., & Khandaker, M. M. (2020). Influence of Exogenous Hydrogen Peroxide on Plant Physiology, Leaf Anatomy and Rubisco Gene Expression of the Ficus deltoidea Jack var. Deltoidea. Agronomy 2020, 10, 497.https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040497
  28. Sajili, M. H., Atiqah, W. N., Badaluddin, N. A., Mohamed, S., Ngah, N., Abdullah, T. A., & Lokman, M. N. (2020). Biological Control Agent for Controlling Bipolaris sp., a Fungal Pathogen of Leaf Spot Diseases on Oryza sativa L. Bioscience Research, 17, 228-237. https://www.isisn.org/BR17(SI-1)2020/228-237-17(SI-1)2020BR20-26.pdf
  29. Samant, D., Kishore, K., & Singh, H. S. (2016). Branch Bending for Crop Regulation in Guava under Hot and Humid Climate of Eastern India. Journal of Indian Society Coastal Agricultural Research, 34, 92-96. https://krishi.icar.gov.in/jspui/bitstream/123456789/18971/2/7.%20ISCAR-Bending-16.pdf
  30. Sarkar, A., Ghosh, B., Kundu, S., & Sukul, P. (2005). Effect of shoot pruning and bending on yield and fruit quality in guava cv. L-49. Environmental Ecology, 23, 621-623. https://doi.org/ 10.20546/ijcmas.2019.803.240
  31. Sharaf, A., El-Saadany, S. S. (1987). Biochemical studies on guava fruits during different maturity stages. Chemical Microbiology Technology Lebensm, 10, 145–149.
  32. Sharma, l. K. (2014). Effect of varied pruning intensities on the growth, yield and fruit quality of starking delicious apple under mid hill condition of Himachal Pradesh, India. Agriculture Science Digest, 34, 293-295. https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-0547.2014.01023.4
  33. Sherif, H. M. (2012). Effect of bending date on spur formation and fruit set of Le-Cote pear trees. World Rural Observations, 4, 82-87. File:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/Documents/013_13734rural0404_82_87.pdf
  34. Shu, Z. H., Tzong, S. L., Jung, M. L., Chi, C.H., Der, N. W., & Hsiao, H. P. (2007). The industry and progress review on the cultivation and Physiology of Wax apple-with special reference to pink variety. The Asian and Australian Journal Plant Science Biotechnology, 1, 48-53. file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/Documents/AAJPSB_1(2)48-53o.pdf
  35. Supapvanich, S., Pimsaga, J., & Srisujan, P. (2011). Physicochemical changes in fresh-cut wax apple (Syzygium samarangense [Blume] Merrill & Perry L. M.) during storage. Food Chemistry, 127, 912–917. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.058
  36. Zen-hong, S., Meon, Z., Tirtawinata, R., Thanarut, C. (2006). Wax apple production in selected tropical Asian countries. ISHS. Acta Horticulturae, 773, 161-164 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.773.22
  37. Zhang, W., Zheng, X. L. J., Wang, G., Sun, C., Ferguson I., & Chen, K. (2008). Bioactive components and antioxidant capacity of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. & Zucc.) fruit in relation to fruit maturity and postharvest storage. European Food Research Technology, 227, 1091-1097. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-008-0824-z
  38. Zhang, M., Han, M., Ma, F. & Shu, H. (2015). Effect of bending on the dynamic changes of endogenous hormones in shoot terminals of ‘Fuji’ and ‘Gala’ apple trees. Acta Physiology Plantarum, 37, 76 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-015-1813-z